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Now you are ready to add the content of your page. It will all fit between the opening <BODY> tag and the closing </BODY> tag. For demo purposes, lets say your hobby is bird-watching and you want this to be the theme for your site. You have decided to call it "For The Birds".


ADDING A HEADING:
The HEADING tag will tell the browser to display your text in larger, bolder letters. It is just the letter H followed by a number 1 through 6 (1 being the largest). The opening HEADING tag goes in front of your text, the closing HEADING tag goes at the end of your text. If you also want this heading to be centered, then you would put the <CENTER> tag in front and the CLOSE </CENTER> tag at the end. Wanting the text to be large and centered, you would type this:
<CENTER><H1>FOR THE BIRDS</H1></CENTER>

There is an alternative method (which I prefer) to determine text size which will be discussed later in extras. For now we will stick to the basics.


OBTAINING AN IMAGE:
A picture is worth a thousand words and certainly dresses up your page. Keep in mind that the larger an image's file, the longer it takes for the page to load. If your images are too many or too large then your visitors will become impatient with your page. Images used on web sites must be in either JPG or GIF format. You can get images from several sources:
  • from purchased CDROM Collections
  • from scanned photos or drawings
  • from drawings you make in a paint program
  • from image collections offered on the web in exchange for a link to the artist's page
To capture or download an image from one of the free collections on the web, position your curser on the image and right-click. Then click on SAVE IMAGE and save it to the same directory as your HTML document (such as the floppy disk). Remember that taking someone's image without permission is stealing. Only take those that have been freely offered and give the artist credit when asked to do so.

A wonderful utility for drawing and editing images is Paint Shop Pro. A free trial version can be downloaded from the web here.


ADDING AN IMAGE:
You now want to put an image below your heading. The IMAGE tag looks like this <IMG> and it does not need a corresponding closing tag. You will need to include information in the tag about your image: the name of the image file (SRC=), and if you want it aligned left or right (ALIGN=) . If you omit the ALIGN attribute then by default the image will align on the left side of the page.
Other info, not required, but helpful is: alternate text message for browsers which cannot see the image (ALT=), and the height and width in pixels of the image (HEIGHT=   WIDTH=). It is a good idea to include the height and width because that will make the page load faster.

a note about determining the height and width of an image: Many graphics programs display this information when an image is opened. Also you can also find it by opening an image with Netscape Navigator. In the Title Bar after the image's name you will see the pixels (the first number is the width, the second is the height).

So you would type this tag:
<IMG   SRC="bird.gif"   ALT="Bluebird"   HEIGHT="281"   WIDTH="318" >
Notice that all the attributes after the equal signs are enclosed in quotes and that there is a required space between each of those attributes and remember that the image's file name must exactly match the name of the file as it is in your directory. There is more about aligning images in the advanced features explained in extras.


ADDING TEXT:
Text is NOT enclosed in brackets like the tags are. You merely type it into your document and use tags around it to tell the browser where or how to display it. Unless otherwise specified, it will begin to the left and wrap to the next line when it reaches the right margin of the page.
  • you can center it by enclosing in CENTER tags
    <CENTER> </CENTER>
  • you can leave blank spaces by using the NONBREAKING SPACE code
    &nbsp;
    (a whole string of these would move the text over as far as you like)
  • you can skip down to the next line by using the BREAK tag
    <BR>
    (use more than one BREAK tag to skip more lines)
  • you can use the PARAGRAPH tag to set off paragraphs (it skips 2 lines)
    <P>
  • you can make it bold
    <B> </B>
  • you can make it italics
    <I> </I>
  • you can underline it
    <U> </U>
  • you can strike through it
    <S></S> or the newer <DEL></DEL>
  • you can write "subscript" like in H20
    <SUB></SUB>
  • you can write "superscript" like 42   (4 squared)
    <SUP></SUP>

Changing the size and temporary color of the text is explained later in extras.

You have decided to center your text on the page and have it skip to the next line after you state your name, and you want to use italics to set off your screen name. You would type this:
<CENTER>
My name is John. I am known on the web as <I>Tweeter </I>
<BR>
I have always been fascinated with birds. A hobby that began with one feeder and a birdbath in my yard has now blossomed to include bird-watching safaris in South America. Join me now as I share with you a bit about our fine feathered friends. </CENTER>



LINKING TO OTHER PAGES ON YOUR SITE:
Links are known as ANCHOR tags and look like this <A>    </A>. You will need to include information in the tag about where you want to link to (HREF=). The HREF attribute will be the URL of the page linked. If you are linking to a page inside of your own site directory, then a shortened version of the URL (just the page's file name) is all that is needed. Now you would like to list the various pages in your site and link them so your visitors can click to go there. You have decided that they will go down the center of the page and the text size will be a little smaller than the heading was but larger than the regular text. You would type:
<CENTER><A HREF="spotting.html"><H2>Spotting Your Favorite Birds</H2></A></CENTER>
<CENTER><A HREF="feeding.html"><H2>Feeding Birds in Your Yard</H2></A></CENTER>
<CENTER><A HREF="habitat.html"><H2>Attracting Birds to Your Yard</H2></A></CENTER>
<CENTER><A HREF="safari.html"><H2>Bird-Watching Safaris</H2></A></CENTER>


Notice that each link is enclosed with the <CENTER> and CLOSE </CENTER> tags. Notice that each link is enclosed in a HEADING tag with a size 2. Notice that each link is enclosed with the ANCHOR and CLOSE ANCHOR tags. Notice that the ANCHOR tags contain the URL you are linking to, in this case the short file name version since these are pages within your own site. Notice that the URLs are enclosed in quotes. Also notice that there is a required space between the A and the HREF= because the HREF= is an attribute of the A tag.


ADDING AN IMAGE THAT WILL BE LINKED TO ANOTHER PAGE:
You now want to add an image of the logo of your favorite bird seed supply source and link it to their web site. And you want to skip down several lines, then center it on the page. To do this you would write an IMAGE tag and enclose it in the ANCHOR and CLOSE ANCHOR tags. You would type the following:
<BR><BR><BR><BR>
<CENTER> <A HREF="http://www.birdseed.com/"><IMG    SRC="sflogo.gif"   ALT="Seed Factory logo"   HEIGHT="118"   WIDTH="143"    BORDER=0></A> </CENTER> <CENTER>visit my favorite birdseed source</CENTER>


Notice that you wrote 4 LINE BREAK tags to provide a bit of empty space. Notice that your IMAGE tag with all its attributes (SRC, ALT, height, width, border) is enclosed by ANCHOR and CLOSE ANCHOR tags. Did you notice that there is a new attribute (BORDER=) in there this time? When an image is a link, then the browser will want to draw a box around it in the link color instead of underlining it as text would be. To prevent that colored box, you can add BORDER=0. Then all that is enclosed by CENTER and CLOSE CENTER tags. Since this time you are linking to a web site outside of your own, notice that you provided the entire URL. Then under that you provided a centered text message.


ADDING A MAILTO LINK:

Now you want to skip down a few more spaces and provide your email address and make it open a mailto window when clicked on. This is done just like a regular link, except this time instead of linking it to a URL, you will link to a "mailto address". If your email address was "tweeter@aol.com", you would type the following:
<BR><BR><BR>
<CENTER>
send me <A HREF="mailto:tweeter@aol.com">mail</A>
</CENTER>


Notice the 3 LINE BREAK tags that provide spacing. Notice the plain text "send me", then "mail" is enclosed in the ANCHOR and CLOSE ANCHOR tags. The HREF attribute is mailto followed by a colon, followed by your email address. And notice that it is all enclosed in CENTER and CLOSE CENTER tags.


ADDING THE CLOSING TAGS:

Your HTML and BODY tags began at the top of the document. Now you need to add the accompanying CLOSING tags. Type the following:
</BODY>
</HTML>



Recapping, your document should look like this now:
<html>
<head>
<title>My Page</title>
</head>
<body    background="sky.jpg"   bgcolor="FFFFFF"    text="000000"    link="0000FF"    vlink="FF0000"    alink="FFFF00">
<CENTER><H1>FOR THE BIRDS</H1></CENTER>
<IMG   SRC="bird.gif"   ALT="Bluebird"   HEIGHT="281"   WIDTH="318">
<CENTER>
My name is John. I am known on the web as <I>Tweeter </I>
<BR>
I have always been fascinated with birds. A hobby that began with one feeder and a birdbath in my yard has now blossomed to include bird-watching safaris in South America. Join me now as I share with you a bit about our fine feathered friends.
<CENTER><A HREF="spotting.html"><H2>Spotting Your Favorite Birds</H2></A></CENTER>
<CENTER><A HREF="feeding.html"><H2>Feeding Birds in Your Yard</H2></A></CENTER>
<CENTER><A HREF="habitat.html"><H2>Attracting Birds to Your Yard</H2></A></CENTER>
<CENTER><A HREF="safari.html"><H2>Bird-Watching Safaris</H2></A></CENTER>
<BR><BR><BR><BR>
<CENTER> <A HREF="http://www.birdseed.com/"><IMG    SRC="sflogo.gif"   ALT="Seed Factory logo"   HEIGHT="118"   WIDTH="143"    BORDER=0></A> </CENTER> <CENTER>visit my favorite birdseed source</CENTER>
<BR><BR><BR>
<CENTER>
send me <A HREF="mailto:tweeter@aol.com">mail</A>
</CENTER>
</BODY>
</HTML>





BE SURE AND SAVE YOUR WORK:

In the next lesson we will work on publishing your page. Meanwhile, save this latest addition to your document the same way you saved in lesson 1. You now have a good basic web page. Of course there are a lot of kewl things you will want to add, but we will cover those more advanced features in extras and advanced extras.

The page used as an example will look something like this



click to continue
or go to:
[ HOME , lesson 1 , lesson 2 , lesson 3
extras , advanced extras , colors , graduation ]



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